Knowles’ 4 Principles of Andragogy
In 1980 Malcolm Knowles established 4 assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners (andragogy) that are unique from that of child learners (pedagogy). See below:
As a person matures his/her self concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being
Adult Learner Experience
As a person matures he/she accumulates a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning.
Readiness to Learn
As a person matures his/her readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his/her social roles.
Orientation to Learning
As a person matures his/her time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and accordingly his/her orientation toward learning shifts from one of subject- centeredness to one of problem centeredness.
Motivation to Learn
As a person matures the motivation to learn is internal (Knowles 1984:12).